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                            1. 大学英语六级考试常考语法知识点汇总(一)

                              六级考试网 鲤鱼小编 更新时间:2019-01-25

                                    在大学英语六级考试中,单独考察六级语法的题型不多,但是语法知识点却贯穿整张试卷,下面是鲤鱼小编整理的“大学英语六级基础语法知识(一),希望可以为大家带来帮助。

                                主谓倒装

                                主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序:一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order);二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。而倒装语序中又有全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)两种情况。

                                首先,在全部倒装的句子中,要把整个谓语放在主语的前面去而构成倒装语序。

                                例如:

                                There are large numbers of students in the lecture hall.

                                (在There be…的句式中,There只是个引导?#35782;?#19981;是主语,真正的主语是后面作表语的名?#39542;?#32773;名?#35782;?#35821;。因此,There be…的句式都是全部倒装的句子。)演讲厅里有大量的学生。

                                When he ran to the door, there stood a mid-aged man with a lantern in his hand .

                                (?#21496;?#26159;为了"描述情节的需要",把倒装当着修辞的手段而写成了全部倒装句。句子的主语是a mid-aged man,谓语是stood 。)当他向房?#25490;?#21435;?#20445;?#37027;儿正立着一位手里拿着一盏灯笼的中年男人。

                                另外,在部分倒装的句子中,?#35805;?#35859;语的一部分(如情态动词、助动词、或是系动词be)放到主语的前面去,构成倒装语序。例如:

                                Are you going to take part in the football match against Accounting Department on Friday afternoon? (句子的谓语是are going to take part,are是句子的谓语的一部分;句子的主语是you 。所以,?#21496;?#26159;部分倒装的句子。疑问句都是部分倒装句。)你打算去参?#26377;?#26399;五与会?#33889;到?#34892;的足球赛吗?

                                Hardly could he finish his test paper when the school bell rang .(由于语法要求的原因,本句写成了部分倒装的句子。它的自然语序应该是:When the bell rang, he could hardly finish his test paper.)他还未做完试卷,下课铃就响了。

                                了解了倒装语序的构成情况后,我们再来看看倒装语序在各种不同类句子中的使用情况:

                                A. 在疑问句中

                                各种疑问句一般地说都是倒装语序。例如:

                                Will they come to see us this weekend ? 这个周末他们将来看我们吗?

                                Are you talking about the film you saw last Monday ?

                                你们是在谈论你们上周一看的那部电影吗?

                                Can you speak another foreign language except English?

                                除开英语,你还能说另一种外语吗?

                                Where did you buy the dictionary, in the book store nearby or in Xinhua bookstore?

                                你在哪儿买的这本词典,是在附近的书店还是在新华书店?

                                She is not a student, isn‘t she ? 她不是个学生,对吗?

                                B. 在感叹句中

                                某些感叹句也用倒装语序。例如:

                                Isn‘t it a beautiful garden ! 多么美丽的花园啊!

                                What a beautiful garden it is ! 多么美丽的花园啊!(在这种句式中,主语在谓语之前,属于自然语序。对于主语和谓语而言,语序没有倒装。)

                                Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him !

                                你见过那个孩子像他这么调皮!

                                C. 在陈述句中

                                陈述句在一般情况下用自然语序;但由于英语语法的某些原因,陈述句也要使用倒装语序。这些原因大致可以归纳

                                1) 为了避免句?#30828;?#20998;内容不必要的重复,常用"so + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"或"neither / nor + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"的倒装句式。其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述?#30446;?#23450;情况相同", 第二个句式表示"与前面所述的否定情况相同"。例如:

                                His brother is a college student; so is mine.

                                他弟弟是大学生,?#19994;?#24351;也是。

                                His brother is not a college student; nor is min .

                                他弟弟不是大学生,?#19994;?#24351;也不是。

                                He used to have his further study abroad; so did I.

                                他曾去国外深造过,我也去过。

                                He didn‘t use to have his further study abroad; neither did I.

                                他没去国外深造过,我也没?#23567;?

                                One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; so can his wife.

                                我的一个朋友会?#31561;?#38376;外国语,他的妻子也会。

                                One of my friends cannot speak three foreign languages; neither can his wife .我的一个朋友不会?#31561;?#38376;外国语,他的妻子也不会。

                                They are now preparing for their final examinations; so are we .

                                他们正在为期末考试作准?#31119;?#25105;们也一样。

                                They are not now preparing for their final examinations; nor are we .

                                他们没在为期末考试作准?#31119;?#25105;们也没?#23567;?

                                2)具有否定意义的?#39542;?#30701;语置于句?#36164;?除否定?#24066;?#39280;主语外),句子一般要写成部分倒装句。这类?#39542;?#30701;语常见的有:not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, no sooner … (than), hardly … (when), not only … (but also), not until… ,等。例如:

                                Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door .

                                她还没来得及坐下来,就听见有人敲门。

                                Not until twelve o‘clock did he go to bed last night .

                                他昨晚直到十二点?#30828;?#30561;觉。

                                Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before .

                                我的妹妹们以前从?#24904;?#36807;香港。

                                No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there.我从新西兰一回国,就买了一栋房?#30828;?#22312;那儿住下了。

                                So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother.

                                就我所知,玛利几乎很难回来?#27492;?#22920;妈。

                                Scarcely a drop of rain fell here last fall . (否定?#24066;?#39280;主语?#20445;?#21477;?#30828;?#29992;倒装。) 去年秋天,这儿几乎没下一滴雨。

                                    语法的应用在考试中十分重要,同学们在复习时要将其烂熟于心,这样才能在考试中得心应手,也就不会丢分了,鲤鱼小编预祝同学们都能顺利通过英语六级考试!

                              相关推荐:

                              2018年12月英语六级考试作文?#27573;模?)

                              2018年12月英语六级考试作文?#27573;模?)

                              专题汇总

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                                                        1. 吉林快三技巧
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